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边缘海到底是个什么概念?

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谦虚的小公鸡 发表于 2013-11-24 15:50:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
我导师说边缘海必须存在洋壳,所以黄海不是边缘海。但我看到好多地方认为边缘海只需要一边是陆地一边是海洋就可以了,黄海也算作是边缘海。
后来看了一本关于边缘海演化的书,竟然没有给出边缘海的定义。
不知哪位有边缘海的准确定义?谢谢!
SunZhen 发表于 2013-11-25 14:44:48 | 显示全部楼层
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%99%86%E7%BC%98%E6%B5%B7
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marginal_sea

边缘海又称“陆缘海”,简称“缘海”或“边海”。濒临大陆,被半岛、岛屿或群岛与大洋分开的海,如黄海、鄂霍次克海、日本海等(出自http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E8%BE%B9%E7%BC%98%E6%B5%B7
ocean1 发表于 2013-11-25 15:03:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ocean1 于 2013-11-25 15:04 编辑

以下根据维基百科(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marginal_sea#cite_note-Mapping1994-1):

“The term marginal sea commonly has two differing meanings.

As an oceanographic term, marginal sea indicates a partially enclosed sea adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean at the surface, but bounded by submarine ridges on the sea floor.[1]

As a geopolitical term, marginal sea is equivalent to territorial waters.[2] Defining what naval territory falls under a state's jurisdiction as "marginal sea" is important in determining what maritime resources that state can exploit.[3]

Marginal seas of the world
Sources differ over which seas are considered marginal seas as well as which ocean a given sea is considered a marginal part of. There is no single ultimate authority on the matter.

Marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean:
Barents Sea
Beaufort Sea
Chukchi Sea (separated by Wrangel Island)
Kara Sea[4]
Laptev Sea (separated by the Severnaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands)[5]

Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean:
Argentine Sea
Baltic Sea[3]
Caribbean Sea[3]
English Channel
Gulf of Mexico
Hudson Bay[1]
Irish Sea (separated by Ireland)[3]
Mediterranean Sea[3]
North Sea (by Great Britain)[3]
Norwegian Sea (by Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and Shetland); and Greenland Sea[3]
Scotia Sea (by the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands)
Sometimes the Arctic Ocean itself is considered a marginal sea of the Atlantic.[3][6]

Marginal seas of the Indian Ocean:
Andaman Sea (separated by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands).[7]
Arabian Sea
Bay of Bengal
Java Sea (separated by the Greater Sunda Islands)
Persian Gulf[3]
Red Sea[3]
Sea of Zanj (an historic entity off the southeast African coast and including the Mascarene islands)

Marginal seas of the Mediterranean Sea:
Adriatic Sea
Aegean Sea
Alboran Sea
Balearic Sea
Black Sea[3]
Sea of Crete
Ionian Sea
Ligurian Sea
Myrtoan Sea
Thracian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea

Marginal sea of the Black Sea:
Sea of Azov

Marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean:
Bering Sea (separated by the Aleutian Islands)
Celebes Sea[3]
Coral Sea (by the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu).[3]
East China Sea (by the Ryukyu Islands)
Philippine Sea (by the Ogasawara Islands, the Mariana Islands, and Palau)
Sea of Chiloé (by Chiloé Island, Chile)
Sea of Japan (by the Japanese Archipelago)[3]
Sea of Okhotsk (by the Kurile Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula)
South China Sea (by the Philippines)[3]
Sulu Sea[3]
Tasman Sea (between Australia and New Zealand)
Yellow Sea (by the Korean Peninsula)[1]

Marginal seas of the Southern Ocean:
Scotia Sea”
ocean1 发表于 2013-11-25 15:12:14 | 显示全部楼层
根据 Yahoo!Answers(http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110610094443AAVxKRz):

“The term Marginal Sea has several conflicting definitions. In the legal world its used to identify a sea bordering a nation where the nation has exclusive jurisdiction, except for the right of innocent passage by foreign vessels. In this sense it is the opposite of "high seas". This definition is given in the Glossary of the Mapping Sciences published by the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping and available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=jPVxSDz... page 469. In this definition, the North Sea, the Japanese Inland Sea, the Black Sea would qualify.

This Glossary has a second definition as a "partly enclosed sea, largely open to the oceans at the surface .. but defined by submarine ridges." Under this definition Hudson Bay and the Yellow Sea qualify.

The Water Encyclopedia ( http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/La-Mi/M... gives the definition as "seas which separate coastal zones from open oceans, and often exist as large indentations into continental landmasses." They list some of the major marginal seas as Arabian Sea, Baltic Sea, Bay of Bengal, Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Black Sea, Gulf of California, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Ross Sea, Weddell Sea, and all four of the Siberian Seas (Barents, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian).

Seas that are not "true seas" would surely include the Sea of Galilee (a freshwater lake) and the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea (all really saline lakes)”
ocean1 发表于 2013-11-25 15:16:49 | 显示全部楼层
总结,以上定义中,都没要求“marginal seas”必须存在洋壳。
Zhoudi 发表于 2013-11-25 15:25:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Zhoudi 于 2013-11-25 15:31 编辑

今年3月我应德国教授J.Harff之邀,为在编的海洋学百科全书写了一个“边缘海”的词条,但该书目前尚未出版。
我发现网上Wiki的边缘海定义是不全面的。边缘海的定义随学科的不同而有所不同。Wiki中的是地理学定义,而地质学中的“边缘海”都是指有洋壳的,否则谈不上什么边缘海的张开、关闭、成因机制等等。
现将我写的那个词条文件附上,供你参考。
我还不太会上传文件,但愿这次能成功。啊啊,怎么文件中没有插图了,我再找找。

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Zhoudi 发表于 2013-11-25 15:49:23 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 边缘海到底是个什么概念?

本帖最后由 Zhoudi 于 2013-11-25 15:55 编辑

Marginal sea的Figs.1,2,3 见所附的三个文件。

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ocean1 发表于 2013-11-25 16:20:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ocean1 于 2013-11-26 07:50 编辑

回复 6# Zhoudi

多谢周蒂老师分享为海洋学百科全书写的“边缘海”词条,很有启发。看来不同学科对“边缘海”的定义有相当的差异。
 楼主| 谦虚的小公鸡 发表于 2013-11-27 21:00:06 | 显示全部楼层
回复 7# Zhoudi

谢谢老师回答!
汤民强 发表于 2013-12-2 03:56:34 | 显示全部楼层
回复 7# Zhoudi

谢谢周老师,概念一下子清楚了。
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